The Apache lived in the United States in the modern-day states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. It is thought that the Apache made a long journey from the North in 1100 CE.
Scholars think this because they speak a language which comes from the Athabaskan language, which mainly comes from western Canada.
The Apache people form sub-groups.
There are the Eastern Apache: the Mescalero, Jicarilla, Chiricahua, Lipanand Kiowa and the Wester Apache, who are the Cibecue, Mimbreno, Coyotero and Northern and Southern Tonto Apache.
The Apache normally went around in groups, called bands. There would be one leader for each group but sometimes, more than one group would ally together.
You could earn your leadership by being strong, good at fighting, peaceful, fair, or having other qualities. You didn’t have to be born into chiefdom to become chief.
The Apache would hunt and trade with other villages. Each group, or tribe, was different. The Lipan, who lived in modern-day Texas, were mostly nomads, which means they moved around.
The Chiricahua were also nomadic. However, the Mecalero were farmers who hunted bison and grew corn.
The Pueblo Rebellion
To begin with, the Apache and the Spanish, and the Americans and Mexicans, were kinds of allies. Some Apache bands raided villages that were supposed to be protected by Spanish missions.
After a long drought in the 17th Century and some raids on these villages, the Pueblo Rebellion broke out in 1680.
The Pueblo managed to overthrow the Spanish rulers in New Mexico for 12 years. The Spanish had treated these people brutally when they arrived.
They tried to force them to be Catholics. Because they wanted them to change their religion and they didn’t understand Apache customs, the Spanish burned Apache ceremonial items, like masks and sacred objects.
When the Apache disagreed, they were taken to Spanish courts and given horrible punishments: they were hung, whipped, had their hands or legs removed or were sold into slavery.
Partial peace in Dragon Mountains
In 1858, there was a meeting in Dragon Mountains between the Chiricahua Apache and the Americans. This meeting led to peace until 1861.
Then, they were in conflict which was to last 25 years. This conflict was caused because they did not want to move onto reservations and the fact that settlers and Americans were constantly coming into Apache land to take gold and silver.
By this time, the Americans had lots of soldiers and a strong military that overpowered the Apache.
Many of the Apache groups had to surrender in the late 1800s. Lots of the Apache did not surrender and would not give up their nomadic lifestyle.
27 years in prison
Conflicts between the Americans and the Apache became very bad. The Chiricahua tribe were taken from their homes in the West and were held as prisoners in Florida for 27 years.
In 1913, these members were given some land in Oklahoma or New Mexico.
Which modern-day states do the Apache live in?
Did you have to be born into a royal family to become a chief?
Which animal did the Apache hunt?
Why did the Pueblo Rebellion start?
When was there a meeting in Dragon Mountains?