The French and Indian War
The French and Indian War was also known as the Seven Years’ War. It was a battle between France and England fought on American soil between 1754 and 1764.
At that time, Britain and France had colonised different parts of North America.
There were a lot more British Americans than there were French, so the French sided with some Native American people as their allies. This is where the name comes from.
Why did the French and Indian War start?
France owned lots of what is now known as Canada but back then it was known as New France.
France wanted control of the Ohio River area but Britain did not want to give up control there. Britain declared war against France.
France wanted control of the River because it connected their possessions from Canada to Louisiana in the south. The English hoped to settle in the Maryland and Pennsylvania valley area.
The fighting mostly happened in what is now New York. William Pitt was the British leader and he saw the war as very important for building the British Empire.
They wanted British control to spread as far as possible across the world. France and Spain also had big empires. The war was about whose culture would dominate in North America – French or English.
Native Americans also joined the side of the British in 1758 so Spain joined France. In 1759, England had lost control of Quebec (which is in Canada).
In 1760, Britain took over Montreal and the French were forced out of Canada altogether.
All these victories encouraged Britain to attack other French and Spanish colonies around the world.
There were many casualties in this war. More people died in the Seven Years’ War than throughout the entire American Revolution.
This war was fought for a long time and there were lots of battles. These included:
- The Battle of Fort Duquesne (1755). This battle was a surprise attack on the British by the French and their Native American allies.
- The Battle of Fort Oswego (1756). This was another victory for the French and they took 1700 prisoners!
- Fort William was captured in 1757 by the French.
The End of the war
The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 and this ended the war. The French had to accept the loss of their territories in North America.
This meant the British had a firm control from foreign invasion for the first time.
What is the French and Indian War also known as?
When was it fought?
Who was also on the French side?
Which area did France want to control?
Name two major battles from the French and Indian War.